@article{Cancino-Chacón2017,
author="Cancino-Chac{\'o}n, Carlos Eduardo
and Gadermaier, Thassilo
and Widmer, Gerhard
and Grachten, Maarten",
title="An evaluation of linear and non-linear models of expressive dynamics in classical piano and symphonic music",
journal="Machine Learning",
year="2017",
volume="106",
number="6",
pages="887--909",
abstract="Expressive interpretation forms an important but complex aspect of music, particularly in Western classical music. Modeling the relation between musical expression and structural aspects of the score being performed is an ongoing line of research. Prior work has shown that some simple numerical descriptors of the score (capturing dynamics annotations and pitch) are effective for predicting expressive dynamics in classical piano performances. Nevertheless, the features have only been tested in a very simple linear regression model. In this work, we explore the potential of non-linear and temporal modeling of expressive dynamics. Using a set of descriptors that capture different types of structure in the musical score, we compare linear and different non-linear models in a large-scale evaluation on three different corpora, involving both piano and orchestral music. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where models of musical expression are evaluated on both types of music. We show that, in addition to being more accurate, non-linear models describe interactions between numerical descriptors that linear models do not.",
issn="1573-0565",
doi="10.1007/s10994-017-5631-y",
url="http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10994-017-5631-y"
}



@incollection{grachten17:_tempor,
  author = 	 {Grachten, M. and {Cancino Chac\'{o}n}, C. E.},
  title = 	 {Temporal dependencies in the expressive timing of classical piano performances},
  booktitle = 	 {The Routledge Companion to Embodied Music Interaction},
  editor =       {Lesaffre, M. and Maes, P.-J. and Leman, M.},
  publisher =    {Routledge},
  pages =        {362--371}
  year = 	 2017
}




@article{grachten17:_towar,
  author = 	 {Grachten, Maarten and Cancino Chac\'{o}n, Carlos Eduardo and Gadermaier, Thassilo and Widmer, Gerhard},
  title = 	 {Towards computer-assisted understanding of dynamics in symphonic music},
  journal = 	 {IEEE Multimedia: Special Issue on Multimedia Technologies for Enriched Music Performance, Production and Consumption},
  year = 	 2017,
  volume = 24,
  number = 1,
  pages = {36--46}
}




@inproceedings{cancino16:_basis_mixer,
  title = {The Basis Mixer: A Computational Romantic Pianist},
  author = {Cancino Chac\'{o}n, Carlos and Grachten, Maarten},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 17th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference},
  note = {Late Breaking/Demo extended abstract},
  organization = {ISMIR},
  year = 2016,
}
  



@inproceedings{velarde16:_compos_recog_filter_piano_rolls,
  title = {Composer Recognition based on 2D-Filtered Piano-Rolls},
  author = {Velarde, Gissel and Weyde, Tillman and Cancino Chac\'{o}n, Carlos and Meredith, David and Grachten, Maarten},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 17th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference},
  organization = {ISMIR},
  pages = {115--121},
  year = 2016,
}




@inproceedings{gadermaier2016_loudness_modeling,
  title={Modeling Loudness Variations in Ensemble Performance },
  author={Gadermaier, Thassilo and Grachten, Maarten and Cancino Chac\'{o}n, Carlos Eduardo},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on New Music Concepts (ICNMC 2016)},
  year=2016,
  address={Treviso, Italy},
  publisher={ABEditore}
}




@article{purwins08:_comput_i,
author = {H. Purwins and P. Herrera and M. Grachten and A. Hazan and R. Marxer and X. Serra},
title = {Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain},
journal = {Physics of Life Reviews},
volume = 5,
number = 3,
pages = "151--168",
year = 2008,
issn = "1571-0645",
doi = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2008.03.004",
url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1571064508000158",
}




@article{purwins08:_comput_ii,
author = {H. Purwins and M. Grachten and P. Herrera and A. Hazan and R. Marxer and X. Serra},
title = {Computational models of music perception and cognition II: Domain-specific music processing},
journal = {Physics of Life Reviews},
volume = 5,
number = 3,
pages = "169--182",
year = 2008,
issn = "1571-0645",
doi = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2008.03.005",
url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S157106450800016X",
}




@TechReport{grachten15:_strat_concep_chang_convol_neural_networ,
  author = {Grachten, M. and Cancino Chac{\'o}n, C. E.},
  title = {Strategies for Conceptual Change in Convolutional Neural Networks},
  institution =  {Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence},
  number = {OFAI-TR-2015-04},
  year = 	 2015,
  month = 	 {October}}




@InProceedings{	  chacon15,
  author	= {C. E. Cancino Chac\'{o}n and M. Grachten},
  title		= {An evaluation of score descriptors combined with
		  non-linear models of expressive dynamics in music},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on
		  Discovery Science (DS 2015)},
  publisher	= {Springer},
  year		= 2015,
  editor	= {Japkowicz, Nathalie and Matwin, Stan},
  series	= {Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
  address	= {Banff, Canada}
}




@InProceedings{	  lattner15:_probab_segmen_music_sequen_restr_boltz_machin,
  author	= {S. Lattner and M. Grachten and K. Agres and C. E. Cancino
		  Chac\'on},
  title		= {Probabilistic Segmentation of Musical Sequences using
		  Restricted Boltzmann Machines},
  booktitle	= {{Proceedings of the Fifth Biennial International
		  Conference on Mathematics and Computation in Music
		  (MCM2015)}},
  year		= 2015,
  address	= {London, UK}
}




@inproceedings{Grachten:2014samp,
author = {Grachten, Maarten and Cancino Chac{\'o}n, Carlos Eduardo  and Widmer, Gerhard},
title = {{Analysis and prediction of expressive dynamics using Bayesian linear models}},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st international workshop on computer and robotic
Systems for Automatic Music Performance},
year = {2014},
pages = {545--552},
month = jul
}




@InProceedings{	  agres15:_co,
  author	= {K. Agres and C. E. Cancino Chac\'on and M. Grachten and S.
		  Lattner},
  title		= {Harmonics co-occurrences bootstrap pitch and tonality
		  perception in music: Evidence from a statistical
		  unsupervised learning model},
  booktitle	= {{CogSci 2015: The annual meeting of the Cognitive Science
		  Society}},
  year		= 2015,
  address	= {Pasadena, CA, USA}
}




@InProceedings{	  arzt15:_artif_intel_concer,
  author	= {A. Arzt and H. Frostel and Th. Gadermaier and M. Gasser
		  and G. Widmer and M. Grachten},
  title		= {Artificial Intelligence in the Concertgebouw},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on
		  Artificial Intelligence},
  year		= 2015,
  address	= {Buenos Aires, Argentina}
}




@InProceedings{	  lattner15:_pseud,
  author	= {S. Lattner and M. Grachten and C. E. Cancino Chac\'on},
  title		= {Pseudo-supervised training improves unsupervised melody
		  segmentation},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on
		  Artificial Intelligence},
  year		= 2015,
  address	= {Buenos Aires, Argentina}
}




@InProceedings{GrachtenEtAl_2009_TheIsmiClouA,
	author = "Grachten, Maarten and Schedl, Markus and Pohle, Tim and Widmer, Gerhard",
	title = {The ISMIR Cloud: A Decade of ISMIR Conferences at Your Fingertips},
	year = 2009,
	address = "Kobe, Japan",
	pages = "63--68",
	month = "October 26-30",
	booktitle = "Proceedings of the 10th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference",
}




@TechReport{	  cancino14:_bayes_gauss,
  author	= {Cancino Chac{\'o}n, C. E. and Grachten, M. and Widmer, G.},
  title		= {Bayesian linear basis models with Gaussian priors for
		  musical expression},
  institution	= {Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence},
  year		= 2014,
  month		= {September}
}




@Article{	  grachten14:_asses_learn_score_featur_model,
  author	= {M. Grachten and F. Krebs},
  title		= {An Assessment of Learned Score Features for Modeling
		  Expressive Dynamics in Music},
  journal	= {{IEEE} Transactions on Multimedia},
  year		= 2014,
  volume	= 16,
  number	= 5,
  pages		= {1211--1218},
  url		= {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMM.2014.2311013},
  doi		= {10.1109/TMM.2014.2311013},
  timestamp	= {Fri, 05 Sep 2014 15:08:06 +0200},
  biburl	= {http://dblp.uni-trier.de/rec/bib/journals/tmm/GrachtenK14}
		  ,
  bibsource	= {dblp computer science bibliography, http://dblp.org}
}




@InProceedings{	  krebs14:_unsup_learn_refin_rhyth_patter,
  author	= {Florian Krebs and Filip Korzeniowski and Maarten Grachten
		  and Gerhard Widmer},
  title		= {Unsupervised Learning and Refinement of Rhythmic Patterns
		  for Beat and Downbeat Tracking},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the 22nd European Signal Processing
		  Conference (EUSIPCO 2014)},
  year		= 2014
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten13:_autom,
  author	= {Grachten, Maarten and Gasser, Martin and Arzt, Andreas and
		  Widmer, Gerhard},
  title		= {Automatic alignment of music performances with structural
		  differences},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the 14th International Society for Music
		  Information Retrieval Conference},
  year		= 2013,
  month		= {November},
  address	= {Curitiba, Brazil}
}




@InProceedings{	  cancino14:ismir,
  title		= {Developing tonal perception through unsupervised
		  learning},
  author	= {Cancino Chac\'{o}n, C. E. and Lattner, S. and Grachten,
		  M.},
  year		= 2014,
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Music
		  Information Retrieval},
  address	= {Taipei, Taiwan},
  month		= {October}
}




@InProceedings{	  herwaarden14:ismir,
  title		= {Predicting expressive dynamics in piano performances using
		  neural networks},
  author	= {Van Herwaarden, S. and Grachten, M. and De Haas, W. B.},
  year		= 2014,
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Music
		  Information Retrieval},
  address	= {Taipei, Taiwan},
  month		= {October}
}




@InProceedings{	  gomez13:_phenic,
  title		= {PHENICX: Performances as Highly Enriched aNd Interactive
		  Concert Experiences},
  booktitle	= {SMAC Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2013 and SMC
		  Sound and Music Computing Conference 2013},
  year		= 2013,
  month		= {08/2013},
  address	= {Stockholm, Sweden},
  author	= {G{\'o}mez, E. and Grachten, M. and Hanjalic, A. and Janer,
		  J. and Jord{\`a}, S. and Juli{\`a}, C. F. and Liem, C. and
		  Martorell, A. and Schedl, M. and Widmer, G.}
}




@Article{	  amelynck12:_towar_e_motion_based_music,
  author	= {Amelynck, Denis and Grachten, Maarten and Van Noorden,
		  Leon and Leman, Marc},
  title		= {Toward E-Motion-Based Music Retrieval: a Study of
		  Affective Gesture Recognition},
  journal	= {IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing},
  year		= {2012},
  volume	= {3},
  pages		= {250-259},
  number	= {2},
  address	= {Los Alamitos, CA, USA},
  doi		= {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/T-AFFC.2011.39}
		  ,
  issn		= {1949-3045},
  publisher	= {IEEE Computer Society}
}




@InCollection{	  arcos03a,
  author	= {J. Ll. Arcos and M. Grachten and L\'{o}pez de
		  M\'{a}ntaras, R.},
  title		= {{Extracting performer's behaviors to annotate cases in a
		  CBR system for musical tempo transformations}},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on
		  Case-Based Reasoning (ICCBR-03)},
  publisher	= {Springer-Verlag},
  year		= {2003},
  number	= {2689},
  series	= {Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
  pages		= {20--34}
}




@Article{	  flossmann10,
  author	= {S. Flossmann and W. Goebl and M. Grachten and B.
		  Niedermayer and G. Widmer},
  title		= {{The Magaloff Project: An Interim Report}},
  journal	= {Journal of New Music Research},
  year		= {2010},
  volume	= {39},
  pages		= {363--377},
  number	= {4}
}




@InProceedings{	  flossmann09,
  author	= {Flossmann, S and Grachten, M. and Widmer, G.},
  title		= {Expressive performance rendering: introducing performance
		  context},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the 6th Sound and Music Computing
		  Conference},
  year		= {2009}
}




@InProceedings{	  gomez03a,
  author	= {G\'{o}mez, E. and Grachten, M. and Amatriain, X. and
		  Arcos, J. Ll.},
  title		= {Melodic characterization of monophonic recordings for
		  expressive tempo transformations},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2003},
  year		= {2003}
}




@PhDThesis{	  grachten06:phd,
  author	= {Grachten, M.},
  title		= {Expressivity-aware Tempo Transformations of Music
		  Performances Using Case Based Reasoning},
  school	= {Pompeu Fabra University},
  year		= {2006},
  address	= {Barcelona, Spain},
  note		= {{ISBN: 635-07-094-0}}
}




@Unpublished{	  grachten01,
  author	= {M. Grachten},
  title		= {{Summary of the Music Performance Panel, MOSART Workshop
		  2001, Barcelona}},
  note		= {Unpublished. Online:
		  \url{http://www.iua.upf.es/mtg/mosart/panels/music-performance.pdf}}
		  ,
  year		= {2001}
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten04c,
  author	= {M. Grachten and J. Ll. Arcos},
  title		= {{Using the Implication/Realization model for measuring
		  melodic similarity}},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Artificial
		  Intelligence, ECAI 2004},
  year		= {2004},
  publisher	= {IOS Press}
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten03,
  author	= {M. Grachten and J. Ll. Arcos and L\'opez de M\'antaras, R},
  title		= {Tempo-Express: tempo transformations preserving musical
		  expression},
  booktitle	= {Working notes of the IJCAI03 Rencon Workshop},
  year		= {2003},
  note		= {Online:
		  \url{http://shouchan.ei.tuat.ac.jp/~rencon/IJCAI-03/IJCAI\_{}Rencon2003\_{}FINALLAST.pdf}}
		  
}




@Article{	  grachten06,
  author	= {M. Grachten and J. Ll. Arcos and L\'{o}pez de
		  M\'{a}ntaras, R.},
  title		= {A Case Based Approach to Expressivity-aware Tempo
		  Transformation},
  journal	= {Machine Learning},
  year		= {2006},
  volume	= {65},
  pages		= {411--437},
  number	= {2--3},
  publisher	= {Springer Netherlands}
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten05b,
  author	= {M. Grachten and J. Ll. Arcos and L\'{o}pez de
		  M\'{a}ntaras, R.},
  title		= {{Melody retrieval using the Implication/Realization
		  model}},
  booktitle	= {Online Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on
		  Music Information Retrieval (ISMIR 2005)},
  year		= {2005},
  publisher	= {Queen Mary University of London},
  note		= {\url{http://www.music-ir.org/evaluation/mirex-results/articles/similarity/grachten.pdf}}
		  
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten04a,
  author	= {M. Grachten and J. Ll. Arcos and L\'{o}pez de
		  M\'{a}ntaras, R.},
  title		= {Evolutionary optimization of music performance
		  annotation},
  booktitle	= {Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval},
  year		= {2004},
  series	= {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  publisher	= {Springer}
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten04b,
  author	= {M. Grachten and J. Ll. Arcos and L\'{o}pez de
		  M\'{a}ntaras, R.},
  title		= {{TempoExpress, a CBR approach to musical tempo
		  transformations}},
  booktitle	= {Advances in Case-Based Reasoning. Proceedings of ECCBR},
  year		= {2004},
  publisher	= {Springer}
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten04d,
  author	= {M. Grachten and J. Ll. Arcos and L\'{o}pez de
		  M\'{a}ntaras, R.},
  title		= {Melodic Similarity: Looking for a Good Abstraction Level},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Music
		  Information Retrieval (ISMIR 2004)},
  year		= {2004},
  publisher	= {Pompeu Fabra University}
}




@Misc{		  grachten02,
  author	= {M. Grachten and J. Ll. Arcos and L\'{o}pez de
		  M\'{a}ntaras, R.},
  title		= {A Comparison of Different Approaches to Melodic
		  Similarity},
  year		= {2002},
  note		= {Second International Conference on Music and Artificial
		  Intelligence (ICMAI)}
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten10:_analy,
  author	= {M. Grachten and M. Demey and D. Moelants and M. Leman},
  title		= {Analysis and automatic annotation of singer’s postures
		  during concert and rehearsal},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the 6th Sound and Music Computing
		  Conference (SMC2010)},
  year		= {2010},
  address	= {Barcelona, Spain}
}




@InCollection{	  grachten05c,
  author	= {M. Grachten and F. A. Garc\'ia and J. Ll. Arcos},
  title		= {{Navigating through case base competence}},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on
		  Case-Based Reasoning (ICCBR-05)},
  publisher	= {Springer-Verlag},
  year		= {2005},
  number	= {3620},
  series	= {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  pages		= {282--295}
}




@article{grachten09:_phase_repres_visual_gestur_struc_expres_timin,
author = { Maarten   Grachten  and  Werner   Goebl  and  Sebastian   Flossmann  and  Gerhard   Widmer },
title = {Phase-plane Representation and Visualization of Gestural Structure in Expressive Timing},
journal = {Journal of New Music Research},
volume = 38,
number = 2,
pages = {183--195},
year = 2009,
doi = {10.1080/09298210903171160},
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten08a,
  author	= {M. Grachten and W. Goebl and S. Flossmann and G. Widmer},
  title		= {Phase-plane visualizations of gestural structure in
		  expressive timing},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the fourth Conference on Interdisciplinary
		  Musicology},
  year		= {2008},
  address	= {Thessaloniki, Greece}
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten08b,
  author	= {M. Grachten and W. Goebl and S. Flossmann and G. Widmer},
  title		= {Intuitive visualization of gestures in expressive timing:
		  A case study on the final ritard},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the International Conference on Music
		  Perception and Cognition},
  year		= {2008}
}




@Article{	  grachten12:_linear,
  author	= {Grachten, M. and Widmer, G.},
  title		= {Linear basis models for prediction and analysis of musical
		  expression},
  journal	= {Journal of New Music Research},
  year		= {2012},
  volume	= {41},
  pages		= {311--322},
  number	= {4}
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten11:_method,
  author	= {M. Grachten and G. Widmer},
  title		= {A method to determine the contribution of annotated
		  performance directives in music performances},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the International Symposium of Performance
		  Science},
  year		= {2011},
  address	= {Toronto, Canada}
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten11:smc,
  author	= {M. Grachten and G. Widmer},
  title		= {Explaining expressive dynamics as a mixture of basis
		  functions},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the Eighth Sound and Music Computing
		  Conference (SMC)},
  year		= {2011},
  address	= {Padua, Italy}
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten09a,
  author	= {Grachten, M. and Widmer, G.},
  title		= {The kinematic rubato model as a means of studying final
		  ritards across pieces and pianists},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the 6th Sound and Music Computing
		  Conference},
  year		= {2009}
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten09b,
  author	= {Grachten, M. and Widmer, G.},
  title		= {Who is who in the end? Recognizing pianists by their final
		  ritardandi},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the Tenth International Society for Music
		  Information Retrieval Conference},
  year		= {2009},
  pages		= {51-56},
  address	= {Kobe, Japan}
}




@InProceedings{	  grachten07,
  author	= {M. Grachten and G. Widmer},
  title		= {Towards Phrase Structure Reconstruction from Expressive
		  Performance Data},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the International Conference on Music
		  Communication Science (ICOMCS)},
  year		= {2007},
  address	= {Sydney, Australia}
}




@InProceedings{	  hazan06a,
  author	= {A. Hazan and M. Grachten and R. Ramirez},
  title		= {Evolving Performance Models by Performance Similarity:
		  Beyond Note-to-note Transformations},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on
		  Music Information Retrieval (ISMIR)},
  year		= {2006}
}




@InProceedings{	  krebs12:_combin,
  author	= {F. Krebs and M. Grachten},
  title		= {Combining score and filter based models to predict tempo
		  fluctuations in expressive music performances},
  booktitle	= {Proceedings of the Ninth Sound and Music Computing
		  Conference (SMC)},
  year		= {2012},
  address	= {Copenhagen, Denmark}
}




@Article{	  moelants12:_influen_audien_perfor,
  author	= {Moelants, Dirk and Demey, Michiel and Grachten, Maarten
		  and Wu, Chia-Fen and Leman, Marc},
  title		= {The Influence of an Audience on Performers: A Comparison
		  Between Rehearsal and Concert Using Audio, Video and
		  Movement Data},
  journal	= {Journal of New Music Research},
  year		= {2012},
  volume	= {41},
  pages		= {67-78},
  number	= {1},
  doi		= {10.1080/09298215.2011.642392},
  eprint	= {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09298215.2011.642392}
		  ,
  url		= {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09298215.2011.642392}
		  
}




@InProceedings{	  ritter11:_macht_musiz_gesun,
  author	= {Ritter, A. and Grachten, M. and Widmer, G.},
  title		= {Macht Musizieren Gesund? Zur Herzrate und Dessen
		  Variabilität Während Mozarts Klavierkonzert Nr. 14},
  booktitle	= {27. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft f\"ur
		  Musikpsychologie},
  year		= {2011}
}




@Article{	  widmer:etal:aimagazine:2009,
  author	= {Widmer, G. and Flossmann, S. and Grachten, M.},
  title		= {{YQX plays Chopin}},
  journal	= {AI Magazine (Special Issue on Computational Creativity)},
  year		= {2009},
  volume	= {30},
  pages		= {35--48},
  number	= {3}
}